J Neurosci. Feeding pregnant rats a protein-restricted diet persistently alters the methylation of specific cytosines in the hepatic PPAR alpha promoter of the offspring. Evolution of sex chromosomes. The theory outlined here explains the evolution of a rarely recombining chromosome region containing the sex determining genes, an incipient sex chromosome system.
Aside from the disproportionate modulation of genes that code for protein products that localize to the nucleus and which might modify chromatin dynamics, there is a substantial contribution of Y chromosome origin to the differential expression of immune response genes [ 7998].
J Neuroimmunol. Llamas et al. Such research has identified testosterone, for example, as a possible protective agent against autoimmune disorders and an XX chromosome complement as a susceptibility factor in murine models of lupus and multiple sclerosis. Global hypomethylation of the genome in XX embryonic stem cells.
Some conditions, however, may prompt cross-fertilized XX embryos to lose the paternal X chromosome and develop as XO males[ 66 ].
EAE in three strains of mice has a similar sex bias as seen in human MS. Hence, the data raise the possibility that differences in the manifestation of cardiovascular disease in men and women might be influenced in part by the Y chromosome.
Dimitri P, Pisano C: Position effect variegation in Drosophila melanogaster : relationship between suppression effect and the amount of Y chromosome. Chromosomes are not drawn to scale. Evidence for the existence of the human "super female".
Restricted gene flow and subpopulation differentiation in Silene dioica. Comparison of MADS box gene expression in developing male and female flowers of the dioecious plants white campion. In comparison to the fertile hybrids, sterile hybrids showed a pattern of overexpression of a disproportionately large number of X-linked genes.
PLoS Biology. Sunderland, Mass.