Sex differences in unfamiliar face identification: Evidence from matching tasks. Voyer and J. Gender differences in object location memory: A meta-analysis. New York: Elsevier. Males and females use different distal cues in a virtual environment navigation task.
Mayo Clin. Edwards M. Nevertheless, it suggests that it might be fruitful to investigate hormonal and strategy selection as factors in future work. Therefore, throughout the present article, we use the term visual-spatial working memory in a theory-neutral manner to refer to the processes involved in the storage of spatial or visual information over a limited period of time.
The affect intensity hypothesis [ 29 ] states that females demonstrate superior memory function because the intensity of their responses to emotional experiences exceeds the average male reactions, which helps to facilitate the encoding of the memory trace. The present meta-analysis quantified the magnitude of sex differences in visual-spatial working memory and examined variables that might moderate them.
Specifically, females may track navigational patterns to a greater extent than men, recalling explicit, observable environmental clues to expedite successful navigation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
This was the case for of the effect sizes Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis methods 2nd ed. Open in a separate window. Rosenthal, R.