Psychotherapy by reciprocal inhibition. In the only all-male study focused on the anxiety-hormone relation, Olweus, Mattsson, Schalling, and Low examined the relations among testosterone T levels and several personality variables including anxiety in a small sample of Swedish male adolescents in Tanner stages III, IV, and V.
Three studies utilized mixed-sex samples to study pubertal timing and psychological distress. First, a search of the PsycINFO database was conducted using all possible two-term pairings of the following keywords: puberty, pubertal, status, timing, maturity, Tanner, development, anxiety, problems, ratings, symptoms, worry, post-traumatic stress disorder, phobia, panic, obsessive-compulsive, internalizing, hormone, estrogen, estradiol, luteinizing, follicle stimulating, testosterone, gonadotropin-releasing, progesterone, oxytocin, dehydroepiandroesterone, dehydroepiandroesterone sulfate, androstenedione, and cortisol.
Secondary sex characteristics are features that appear during puberty in humansand at sexual maturity in other animals.
In a six-year longitudinal study, Hayward and colleagues examined the relation between pubertal timing and internalizing problems in a large sample of girls. Participate in our patient survey. New York, NY: Elsevier;
Testosterone causes reproductive organs to mature, muscle and bone to grow, facial and pubic hair to appear, and the voice to deepen. Anatomically, this tiny gland is housed at the base of the brain, as shown in the pictures above. Located at the base of the brain, the pituitary gland is protected by a bony structure called the Sella turcica of the sphenoid bone.
This feedback maintains the body's hormonal homeostasis, or bodily balance.
Second, Petersen and Crockett studied the effects of pubertal timing on adjustment in a cohort-sequential study of youth. Breast tissue of adult male Holtzman rats exposed to cyproterone acetate during embryonic differentiation showed presence of specific estradiol receptor proteins and C steroid aromatase.
Evidence for activational effects of hormones on moods and behavior at adolescence.