Mitotic chromosomes were obtained by protocols described in Bertollo et al. Crucially, these study systems will also need to have some phenotypic trait or traits that are known to be sexually antagonistic, with known underlying genetic architecture.
Of the dioecious angiosperms, only a small number have been shown to possess sex chromosomes of which roughly half are homomorphic 56 Ross, M. Miura, I. Ironside, J. Furthermore, different karyomorphs with a sympatric or syntopic occurrence were found to lack any hybrid forms, as proven by cytogenetic and RAPD random amplified polymorphic DNA analyses Dergam et al.
Brigham, Lori E. Evolution 38— Escape artists of the X chromosome. The second assumption was shown to be valid also by two pilot experiments in which the alb2 and nas3 males were tested by the above protocol, with additional transfers of 4-day vial females to fresh vials and counting of their offspring.
Previous work 51014 has indicated that some of the genes that escape XCI hereafter referred to as escape genes show female bias in expression, but our analysis benefits from a larger set of profiled tissues and individuals, as well as the high sensitivity of RNA-seq.
Genetics and geography of sex determination in the poeciliid fish, Xiphophorus maculatus.
Sex-chromosome evolution: recent progress and the influence of male and female heterogamety. The sexual differences of the chromosome-groups in Hemiptera, with some considerations on the determination and inheritance of sex. Prior studies have established that asynapsed or achiasmate chromosomes can activate the spindle checkpoint, causing cells to arrest at metaphase I Burgoyne et al.
Gene expression and genotype data from the GTEx v6p release are available in dbGaP study accession phs