Sex chromosome complement exerts its effect in promoting sexual dimorphism independent of sex hormones. Nat Genet. J Endocrinol Invest. This gene contains a specific SNP variant in the kinase domain of amhr2 in the X chromosome which determines lower affinity for the amh hormone, thus fating the female pathway when homozygous XX; Kamiya et al.
For example, in prenatal stage miR is highly expressed in female supporting cells and suppresses Sox9 gene expression. The sox9 gene is present in two copies known as sox9asox9b or sox9a1sox9a2 in most of the fish species studied i.
The amhy, gsdf, amhr2, and sdY genes Just prior to and during the preparation of the present review, four additional strong candidate master sex-determining SD genes were reported in fish, which indicates that this area of study is moving fast.
These factors will need to be taken into account in future studies.
In summary, the expression of dmy is in perfect agreement with its function as a male upstream determining gene in medaka. Unusual maintenance of X chromosome inactivation predisposes female lymphocytes for increased expression from the inactive X.
Arnold AP. Journal List Front Genet v.
Tracing the emergence of a novel sex-determining gene in medaka, Oryzias luzonensis. In summary, the immune make up of the males and presence of male sex steroid testosterone promotes the spread of CVB3 virus leading to myocarditis. Int J Mol Sci. However, it seems that cyp19a1a is a downstream gene in the sex differentiation pathway and thus, other upstream genes probably trigger the development of the undifferentiated gonads to ovaries or testes in natural sex differentiation or temperature-induced sex differentiation.