Some of these trials were able to randomize allocation to the media campaign Bauman et al. Share this Act. There is also a positive effect of smokefree legislation that applies to workplaces and public places on the prevalence of voluntary home smokefree policies Cheng et al.
In addition, social and environmental factors are recognized as increasing risk for, or providing protection against, smoking by young people and are used as venues for prevention. A few general conclusions can be drawn from recent studies on the effects of taxes and prices on tobacco consumption among youth and young adults:.
Liang and colleagueswho reviewed studies on the effects of tobacco control policies, including the effects of clean indoor air laws on youth smoking rates, found that restrictive laws and workplace policies were an effective tool for reducing smoking among youth.
Comprehensive programs include community interventions, countermarketing, program policy and regulation, and surveillance and evaluation USDHHS b.
The study found that promotion-focused, positively framed messages were most effective at persuading promotion-focused adolescents not to smoke and that prevention-focused, negatively framed messages were most effective for prevention-focused adolescents. One study evaluated an intervention targeted at cancer prevention in New South Wales, Australia Hancock et al.
Another example is the Social Cognitive Theory, which Bandurafocuses on the relationship between personal factors, environmental factors, and behavior, which is often affected by modeling.
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In , the prevalence of smoking among youth and adults declined faster in New York than in the United States as a whole, and the use of other tobacco products by youth and adults also declined RTI International Some of these trials were able to randomize allocation to the media campaign Bauman et al.
After controlling for state and year fixed effects, they found price to have a dramatic negative impact on decisions to initiate smoking among Hispanics and African Americans, but price had no influence on decisions to initiate smoking by Whites.
Reviews of programs in California and Massachusetts documented beneficial effects on the prevalence of adolescent smoking compared with other states Briton et al.